PhD Psychology, City University, London, UK, 2001 MA Criminology, University of Leicester, UK, 1996 BSc First Class Honours Psychology, Brunel University, London, UK, 1995
Before joining Middlesex in Sept. 2013, I was a Reader in the School of Psychology at the University of Surrey from 2011-12, and Senior Lecturer (Lecturer and Senior Researcher) at the Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge from 2005-2011. I have also held academic posts at the University of Victoria, Canada, the University of Maryland, USA, and the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Germany. In addition, I have held visiting academic posts at the University of Granada, Spain, and the Australian Graduate School of Policing and Security. Finally, I have worked as a Principal Psychologist at the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Ministry of Defence), UK, and have work experience in two British prisons.
Theoretical foundations: Decision science. EG. human judgment and decision-making, risk perception and risk taking, and understanding and communicating uncertainty.
Applied domains: Criminal justice system, defence and national security. EG. crime, imprisonment, victim-offender mediation, court decision-making, forensic science, intelligence analysis.
Methodology: Primarily quantitative (experimental and survey), but also some qualitative (interviews and observations).
My research focuses on human judgment and decision-making, risk perception and risk taking, and understanding and communicating uncertainty. I have examined these issues extensively in the criminal justice sector, and more recently in the defence and security sectors. For instance, I have found that court judges make bail decisions using heuristic strategies that fall outside the law. I have shown that youth crime is motivated by the benefits that young people perceive they will gain, and that youth are not deterred by the drawbacks. I have also demonstrated that existing policies for communicating uncertainty in intelligence analysis are ineffective.
I would be willing to supervise PhD students who are interested in any of these topics.
Publications by Topic (e-mail me for a copy if you can't get them via your library or on-line)
Dhami, M. K., Schlottmann, A., & Waldmann, M. (2011). (Eds.). Judgment and decision making as a skill: Learning, development, and evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://www.cambridge.org/gb/knowledge/isbn/item6478746/?site_locale=en_GB
Articles and Chapters on Decision Psychology
Dhami, M. K., Mandel, D. R., Mellers, B., & Tetlock, P. (in press). Improving intelligence analysis with decision science. Perspectives on Psychological Science.
Ho, E., Budescu, D., Dhami, M. K., & Mandel, D. R. (in press). On the effective communication of uncertainty: Lessons from the climate change and intelligence analysis domains. Behavioral Science & Policy.
Lundrigan, S., Dhami, M. K., & Mueller-Johnson, K. (in press). Predicting verdicts using pre-trial attitudes and standard of proof. Legal and Criminological Psychology.
Banks, A., & Dhami, M. K. (2015). Psychological perspectives on military decisions to deploy precision strike capabilities. In T. Dyson et al. (Eds.), Precision-strike warfare and international intervention (pp. 173-187). Routledge.
Dhami, M. K. (2015). Racial disparities, judge characteristics, and standards of review in sentencing. Commentary. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 171, 48-52.
Dhami, M. K., Belton, I., & Goodman-Delahunty, J. (2015). Quasi-rational models of sentencing. Journal of Applied Research on Memory and Cognition, 4, 239-247.
Dhami, M. K., & Careless, K. E. (2015). Ordinal structure of the generic analytic workflow:A survey of intelligence analysts. EISIC.
Dhami, M. K., & Belton, I. (2015). Using court records for sentencing research: Pitfalls and possibilities. In J. Roberts (Ed.), Exploring sentencing in England and Wales (pp. 18-34). Palgrave Macmillan.
Dhami, M. K., Lundrigan, S., & Mueller-Johnson, K. (2015). Instructions on reasonable doubt: Defining the standard of proof and the juror's task. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 21, 169-178.
Belton, I., Thomson, M., & Dhami, M. K. (2014). Lawyer and non-lawyer susceptibility to framing effects in out-of-court civil litigation settlement. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 11, 578-600.
Banks, A., & Dhami, M. K. (2014). Normative and descriptive models of military decisions to deploy precision strike capabilities. Military Psychology, 26, 33-43.
Garcia-Retamero, R., Galesic, M., & Dhami, M. K. (2013). Reducing denominator neglect. In Garcia-Retamero, R., & M. Galesic (Eds.), Transparent communication of risks about health: Overcoming cultural differences (pp. 145-164). New York: Springer.
Dhami, M. K. (2013). A 'decision science' perspective on the old and new sentencing guidelines in England and Wales. In A. Ashworth & J. V. Roberts (Eds.), Structured sentencing in England and Wales: From guidance to guidelines (pp. 165-181). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dhami, M. K., & Mandel, D. R. (2013). How do defendants choose their trial court? Evidence for a heuristic processing account. Judgment and Decision Making, 8, 552-560.
Garcia-Retamero, R., & Dhami, M. K. (2013). On avoiding framing effects in experienced decision makers. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 829-842.
Dhami, M. K. (2013). Sentencing guidelines in England and Wales: Missed opportunities? Law and Contemporary Problems, 76, 287-305.
Dhami, M. K., & Garcia-Retamero, R. (2012). Spanish young adults' perceptions of the costs and benefits of risky driving. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 15, 638-647.
Dhami, M. K., & Mandel, D. R. (2012). Crime as risk taking. Psychology, Crime and Law, 18, 389-403.
Dhami, M. K., & Mandel, D. R. (2012). Forecasted risk taking in youth: Evidence for a bounded-rationality perspective. Synthese. DOI: 10.1007/s11229-012-0110-2
Dhami, M. K., & Thomson, M. (2012). On the relevance of cognitive continuum theory for understanding management judgment and decision making. European Management Journal, 30, 316-326.
Dhami, M. K. (2011). Representative design: A challenge for scientific psychology. In K. O. Moore, & N. P. Gonzalez (Eds.), Handbook on psychology of decision-making. Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Dhami, M. K., Mandel, D. R., & Garcia-Retamero, R. (2011). Canadian and Spanish youths' risk perceptions of drinking and driving and riding with a drunk driver. International Journal of Psychology, 46, 81-90.
Garcia-Retamero, R., & Dhami, M. K. (2011). Pictures speak louder than numbers: On communicating medical risks to immigrants with non-native language proficiency. Health Expectations, 14, (suppl. 1.), 46-57.
Snook, B., Dhami, M. K., & Kavanagh, J. (2011). Simply criminal: Predicting burglars' occupancy decisions with a simple heuristic. Law and Human Behavior, 35, 316-326.
Kamleitner, B., Mandel, D. R, & Dhami, M. K. (2011). Risky discounts: Do people prefer per item or per purchase discounts? Journal of Economic Psychology. 32, 951-961.
Dhami, M. K. (2010). Lay magistrates' interpretations of "substantial grounds" for denying bail. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 49, 349-360.
Dhami, M. K., & Harries, C. (2010). Information search in heuristic decision making. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 571-586.
Merrall, E. L. C., Dhami, M. K., & Bird, S. M. (2010). Exploring methods to investigate sentencing decisions. Evaluation Review. 34, 185-219.
Mueller-Johnson, K., & Dhami, M. K. (2010). Effects of offenders' age and health on sentencing decisions. Journal of Social Psychology, 150, 77-97.
Dhami, M. K., & Souza, K. A. (2009). Sentencing and its outcomes project: Part one pilot study report. Ministry of Justice Research Series 2/09, London, UK.
Garcia-Retamero, R., & Dhami, M. K. (2009). Differences between experts and novices in cue estimation in crime. Psicothema, 21, 376-381.
Garcia-Retamero, R., & Dhami, M. K. (2009). Take-the-best in expert-novice decision strategies for residential burglary. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 163-169.
[Reprinted in G. Gigerenzer, R., Hertwig, & T. Pachur (Eds.), (2011). Heuristics: The foundations of adaptive Behaviour (pp. 602-609). New York: Oxford University Press.]
Garcia-Retamero, R., & Dhami, M. K. (2009). Policías, ladrones y genete corriente: Diferencias entre expertos y noveles en el uso de estrategias para la toma de decisiones. Ciencia Cognitiva: Revista Electónrica de Divulgación, 3, 42-45.
Dhami, M. K. (2008). On measuring quantitative interpretations of reasonable doubt. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 14, 353-363.
Dhami, M. K. (2008). Bail setting decisions. In B. Cutler (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of psychology and law (pp. 37-39).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dhami, M. K. (2008). Sentencing decisions. In B. Cutler (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of psychology and law (pp. 708-710).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dhami, M. K., & Olsson, H. (2008). Evolution of the interpersonal conflict paradigm. Judgment and Decision Making, 3, 547-569.
Kamleitner, B., Dhami, M. K. & Mandel, D. R. (2008), Gambling for a discount: Preferring discount per item to discount per purchase? In A. L. McGill & S. Shavitt (Eds.), Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 36. Duluth, MN: Association for Consumer Research
Dhami, M. K., Hastie, R., Koehler, J. J., & Wiener, R. L. (2007). Introduction to the special issue: Decision making and the law. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 20, 453-454.
Dhami, M. K. (2006). Legal decision making: Psychological reality meets legal idealism. In B. Brooks, & M. Freeman (Eds.), Law and psychology (pp. 49-76). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dhami, M. K., Mandel, D. R., Loewenstein, G., & Ayton, P. (2006). Prisoners' positive illusions of their post-release success. Law and Human Behavior, 30, 631-647.
Piperides, C., Allen, R. J., Dhami, M. K., Flessner, A., Hastie, R., Koehler, J. J., Lempert, R., Schulz, J., & Wagner, G. (2006). Group report: What is the role of heuristics in litigation? In C. Engel & G. Gigerenzer (Eds.), Heuristics and the law. Dahlem Workshop Report 94 (pp. 343-377). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Dhami, M. K. (2005). From discretion to disagreement: Explaining disparities in judges' pre-trial decisions. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 23, 367-386.
Dhami, M. K., Mandel, D. R., & Souza, K. A. (2005). Escape from reality: Prisoners' counterfactual thinking about crime, justice and punishment. In: D. R. Mandel, D. J. Hilton, & P. Catellani (Eds.), The psychology of counterfactual thinking (pp. 165-182). London: Routledge.
Dhami, M. K. & Wallsten, T. S. (2005). Interpersonal comparison of subjective probabilities. Memory & Cognition, 33, 1057-1068.
Mandel, D. R. & Dhami, M. K. (2005). "What I did" versus "what I might have done": Effect of factual and counterfactual thinking on blame, guilt, and shame in prisoners. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41.627-635.
Dhami, M. K. (2004). Conditional bail decision making in the magistrates' court. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 43, 27-46.
Dhami, M. K., Hertwig, R., & Hoffrage, U. (2004). The role of representative design in an ecological approach to cognition. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 959-988.
Dhami, M. K. (2003). Psychological models of professional decision-making. Psychological Science, 14, 175-180.
[Reprinted in G. Gigerenzer, R., Hertwig, & T. Pachur (Eds.), (2011). Heuristics: The foundations of adaptive behavior (pp. 579-588). New York: Oxford University Press.]
Dhami, M. K. (2002). Do bail information schemes really affect bail decisions? The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 41, 245-262.
Karelitz, T. M., Dhami, M. K., Budescu, D. V., & Wallsten, T. S. (2002). Toward a universal translator of verbal probabilities. Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference, 498-502.
Dhami, M. K., & Ayton, P. (2001). Bailing and jailing the fast and frugal way. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 14, 141-168.
Dhami, M. K. & Harries, C. (2001). Fast and frugal versus regression models of human judgment. Thinking & Reasoning, 7, 5-27.
Harries, C. & Dhami, M. K. (2000). On the descriptive validity and prescriptive utility of fast and frugal models. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 753-754.
Articles and Chapters on Criminal Justice and Social Issues
Dhami, M. K. (in press). Apology in victim-offender mediation. Contemporary Justice Review.
Dhami, M. K. (in press). Effects of victims' response to apology in victim-offender mediation. European Journal of Social Psychology.
Li, S., Dhami, M. K., & Ho, T. (2015). Standards and best practices in digital and multimedia forensics. In S. Li, & A. T. S. Ho (Eds.), Handbook of digital forensics of multimedia and mobile devices (pp. 38-93).John Wiley & Sons.
Delahunty, J., Martschuk, N., & Dhami, M. K. (2014). Interviewing high value detainees: Securing cooperation and reliable disclosures. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28, 883-897.
Dhami, M. K. (2014). A scientific approach to countering the terrorist threat. In J. Cole & R. Pantucci (Eds.), Community tensions (pp. 9-17). STFC/RUSI Conference Series No. 3. London: RUSI and STFC.
Dhami, M. K. (2013). Prison work. In J. S. Albanese (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Dhami, M. K, & Cruise, P. (2013). Prisoner disenfranchisement: Prisoner and public views of an invisible punishment. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 13, 211-227.
Goodman-Delahunty, J., & Dhami, M. K. (2013). A forensic analysis of court reports. Australian Psychologist, 48, 32-40.
Dhami, M. K. (2012). Should prisoners be allowed to vote? Criminal Justice Matters, 90 43-44.
Dhami, M. K. (2012). Auto-theft. In R. J. R. Levesque (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of adolescence. NY: Springer-Verlag.
Dhami, M. K. (2012). White-collar crime. In A. Thio, T. C. Calhoun, & A. Conyers (Eds.), Deviance today. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.
Dhami, M. K. (2012). Offer and acceptance of apology in victim-offender mediation. Critical Criminology: An International Journal, 20, 45-60.
Dhami, M. K. (2011). Iraq. In G. R. Newman (Ed.), Crime and punishment around the world (pp. 272-283). Volume 1, Africa/Middle East. ABC-CLIO.
Dhami, M. K. (2011). Military social influence: Commentary on King. Analyses of Social Issues and Public PolicyDOI: 10.1111/j.1530-2415.2011.01239.x
Goodman-Delahunty, J., & Dhami, M. K. (2011). Forensic scientific evidence: Pitfalls and safeguards. Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Understanding Forensic Science in Criminal Justice (pp. 217-253 and Korean translation from pp. 191-216), Korean Institute of Criminology, Seoul, Korea.
Souza, K. S., & Dhami, M. K. (2010). First-time and recurrent inmates' experiences of imprisonment. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37, 1330-1342.
Barnes, G., Mitic, W., Leadbeater, B., & Dhami, M. K. (2009). Risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use and mental health symptoms. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 28, 1-15.
Dhami, M. K., Mantle, G., & Fox, D. (2009). Restorative justice in prisons. Contemporary Justice Review, 12, 433-448.
Dhami, M. K., & Souza, K. A. (2009). Breaking into court. In D. L. Streiner & S. Sidani (Eds.), When research goes off the rails: Why it happens and what can you do about it (pp. 81-87). New York: Guilford Press.
Dhami, M. K. (2008). Youth auto theft: A survey of a general population of Canadian youth. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 50, 187-209.
Souza, K. A., & Dhami, M. K. (2008). A study of volunteers in community-based restorative justice programs. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 50, 31-57.
Souza, K. K., & Dhami, M. K. (2008). Organizational aspects of restorative justice. Resolution, 29, 5.
Dhami, M. K. (2007). White-collar prisoners' perceptions of audience reaction: Findings from a small-scale interview study. Deviant Behavior, 28, 57-77.
Dhami, M. K., Ayton, P., & Loewenstein, G. (2007). Adaptation to imprisonment: Indigenous or imported? Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34, 1085-1100.
Dhami, M. K. & Joy, P. (2007). Challenges to establishing volunteer run community-based restorative justice programs. Contemporary Justice Review, 10, 9-22.
Dhami, M. K., Mandel, D., & Sothmann, K. (2007). An evaluation of post-adoption services. Children and Youth Services Review, 29, 162-179.
Souza, K. A., & Dhami, M. K. (2007). Restorative justice volunteers' perceptions of effective facilitators. British Journal of Community Justice, 5, 55-61.
Fox, D., Dhami, M. K., & Mantle, G. (2006). Restorative final warnings: Policy and practice. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 45, 129-140.
Dhami, M. K. (2005). Prisoner disenfranchisement policy: A threat to democracy? Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, Special Issue: Psychological Perspectives on Threats to Democracy, 5, 253-247.
[Translated and re-published as Dhami, M. K. (2009). La política de privación del sufragio a los presos: ¿una amenaza pa ra la democracia? Revista de Derecho, 22, 121-135.]
Dhami, M. K., Hoglund, W., Leadbeater, B., & Boone, E. (2005). Gender-linked risks for peer physical and relational victimization in the context of school level poverty in first-grade. Social Development, 14, 532-549.
Jansson, M., Russell, T., Mitic, W., & Dhami, M. K. (2005). Ethical issues in a youth population health survey. In: B. Leadbeater, E. Banister, T. Riecken et al. (Eds.), Ethics in community-based research (pp. 59-69). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Mandel, D. R., & Dhami, M. K. (2005). Introduction to the special issue, Psychological perspectives on threats to democracy, Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 5, 205-207.
Mantle, G., Fox, D., & Dhami, M. K. (2005). Restorative justice and three individual theories of crime. Internet Journal of Criminology, 1-36.
Leadbeater, B., Dhami, M. K., Hoglund, W., & Dickinson, E. (2004). Prediction and prevention of peer victimization in early elementary school: How does gender matter? In: M. M. Moretti, C. Odgers, & M. Jackson (Eds.), Girls and aggression: Contributing factors and intervention principles (pp. 181-194). New York: Kluwer Publishers.
Dhami, M. K. (1999). A psychologist on the bench. The Psychologist, 12, 328-329.
Dhami, M. K. (1995). Helping Asian deportees. Forensic Update, 40, 21.
External Research Funding
Nearly £2 million obtained in research funds to-date from various research councils and government bodies, including the Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Defence, Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), and the British Academy.
Editorial Board, Journal of Information Security and Applications (formerly Information Security Technical Report, 2012-
Editorial Board, International Journal of Psychology, 2010-
Editorial Board, Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 2010-2014
Editorial Board, Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2010-
Editorial Board, Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 2009-
Editorial Board, Judgment and Decision Making, 2008-
Editorial Board, Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 2001-2006
Guest Co-Editor (with Prof. Jeremy Wolfe et al.), Special Issue of Policy Insights from Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2015
Guest Lead-Editor (with Profs. R. Hastie, J. J. Koehler and R. L. Wiener), Special Issue on Decision Making and the Law for Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 2007
Guest Co-Editor (with Dr. David R. Mandel), Special Issue on Psychological Perspectives on Threats to Democracy for Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 2005
Invited Keynote, (May 2014). Justice or just decisions? Improving sentencing using guidelines. Paper presented at the UCSIA Workshop on How Objective Can Judges Be? Antwerp, Belgium.
Invited Opening Speech, (Sept 2012). The 'decision science' of intelligence analysis. Paper presented at the 2nd Workshop of the RECOBIA Project. Brussels, Belgium.
Invited Discussant for Plenary, (Mar 2011). ANZAPPL Presidential Plenary – A hypothetical: Sexual harassment in Sydney: What price? American Psychology-Law Society 4th International Congress on Psychology and Law. Miami, FL, USA.
Advice and Consultancy
Over the years I have provided advice and consultancy to various government bodies including the Home Office, Ministry of Justice, Sentencing Council, Judicial Studies Board (Northern Ireland), Metropolitan Police, Ministry of Defence, as well as other organisations such as Restorative Justice – Victoria (in Canada), Southwark Mediation Services, and National Appropriate Adult Network.
Full Associate Member, International Association of Investigative Psychology, 2009-2012
Member, European Society of Criminology, 2009
Fellow, Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (American Psychological Association,
Division 9), member since 2001and awarded fellowship in 2007-2013
Member, American Psychology and Law Society (American Psychological Association, Division 41), 2006-2012
Member, European Association for Psychology and Law, 2005-2014
Member, American Society of Criminology, 2006
Member, Association for Psychological Science (formerly American Psychological Society), 2004-2015
Member, Centre for Youth & Society, University of Victoria, 2001-2004
Associate Member, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2000-
Member, Centre for Criminal Justice Studies, Kings College, UK (formerly ISTD), 1998-2001
Member, Brunswik Society, 1997-
Member, European Association for Decision Making, 1997-
Member, Society for Judgment and Decision Making, 1997-
Member, British Psychological Society, 1992-2001
Academic Awards, Honours and Scholarships/Fellowships
1st Prize, Best Publication of the Year, University of Granada, Spain, 2012
Invited Research Fellow, Australian Graduate School of Policing, Charles Sturt University, Australia, 2011-2014 (declined)
Honorary Lecturer, School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, UK, 2011-2014
Research Scholarship, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Ministry of Defence, UK, 2011-2013 (declined when joining Surrey)
Honourable Mention, Jane Beattie Scientific Recognition Award, European Association for Decision Making, 2009
Honorary Visiting Research Fellow, Department of Psychology, City University, London, UK, 2008-2011
Visiting Research Fellow, Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences, London South Bank University, 2008-2013
Fellow, Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI), Division 9 of American Psychological Association, 2007
Research Fellowship, City University, London, UK, 2002-2004
First Prize, SPSSI Social Issues Dissertation Award, Division 9 of American Psychological Association, 2001-2002
Jane Beattie Scholarship, Society for Judgment and Decision Making, 2000
Winner, De Finetti PhD Student Prize, European Association for Decision Making, 1999
Winner, Student Poster Prize, Society for Judgment and Decision Making, 1998
Winner, Hammond-Brunswik New Investigator of the Year Award, Brunswik Society, 1998
Postgraduate Bursary, British Psychological Society, Cognitive Psychology Section, 1997
Postgraduate Scholarship, Department of Psychology, City University, London, UK, 1996-2000
Scholarship, Economic and Social Research Council, UK, 1995-1996
Winner, University Medal for Outstanding Academic Achievement, Brunel University, London, UK, 1995
Winner, Student Research Prize, Department of Psychology, Brunel University, London, UK, 1993