Erica Howard is Associate Professor in law. She joined Middlesex in 2007 and previously briefly taught European Union Law at the University of Hertfordshire. She holds a doctorate in law from the University of London on the subject of race and racial discrimination within the European Union.
Her areas of research are equality and discrimination law, human rights and European law and she has published widely on topics within this area including racial discrimination, religious discrimination and freedom of religion, multiple discrimination and the right to equality. She has been involved in two projects for the British Equality and Human Rights Commission, a project on the right to freedom of religion or belief and its intersection with other rights for ILGA-Europe and two major European research projects on multiple discrimination. She recently wrote a research study for the EU Parliament Research Service on the implementation of Directive 2000/78/EC with regard to the principle of non-discrimination on the basis of religion or belief.
Erica teaches equality and discrimination law and tort law at undergraduate level and discrimination and the law at post-graduate level. She has supervised to completion two PhD students studying disability discrimination and vulnerable domestic workers and is currently supervising PhD students studying different aspects of age, disability and sexual orientation discrimination, vulnerable workers and freedom of speech and defamation. She welcomes applications from research students in any of the areas of her research.
PhD European Law (Queen Mary, University of London - 2007); LLM International Law (University of Hertfordshire - 1999); MA Sociology and Law (Brunel University - 1985); Masters in Law (Tilburg University, Holland - 1979); Post-graduate Certificate of Higher Education (Middlesex, 2009)
Journal Articles (refereed):
Chapters in book:
Conference Papers (refereed):
Other publications (refereed):
Dutch (mother tongue) and English, working knowledge of German and French
Research areas: Doctoral students welcome in the following areas:
Howard, Erica (2016) Gratuitously offensive speech and the political debate. European Human Rights Law Review, 6 . pp. 636-644. ISSN 1361-1526
Howard, Erica (2016) Indirect discrimination, reasonable accomodation and religion. In: Equal is not enough. Discrimination law in theory and practice . Intersentia, Cambridge/Antwerp/Portland, pp. 73-91. ISBN 9781780684062
Howard, Erica (2016) Freedom of speech versus freedom of religion? The case of Dutch politician Geert Wilders. Human Rights Law Review . ISSN 1461-7781 (Accepted/In press)
Donald, Alice and Howard, Erica (2015) The right to freedom of religion or belief and its intersection with other rights. Discussion Paper. ILGA-Europe, Brussels, Belgium. (Published online first)
Howard, Erica (2016) Implementation of the employment equality directive: the principle of non-discrimination on the basis of religion or belief. European Union, Brussels.
Author of research study for the EU Parliament Research Service on the Implementation of Directive 2000/78/EC with regard to the principle of non-discrimination on the basis of religion or belief
Consultant for two EHRC projects, main contractors NatCen: Call for evidence (with Alice Donald) and drafting guidance documents (with Alice Donald and David Keane)
Argument from article: Reasonable Accommodation of Religion and other Discrimination Grounds in EU law European Law Review 38, 3, 360-375 (2013), used by the UK Supreme Court in Bull and Bull v Hall and Preddy  UKSC 73, para 45). This argument was then referred to in the Northern Ireland 'gay cake' case (Lee v Ashers Baking Co Ltd, County Court Northern Ireland, 19 May 2015).
Presentation of evidence on the current legislation concerning religion or belief to the Commission on Religion and Belief in Public Life (May 2015).
Member of the editorial board of: