Erica Howard is Associate Professor in law. She joined Middlesex in 2007 and previously briefly taught European Union Law at the University of Hertfordshire. She holds a doctorate in law from the University of London on the subject of race and racial discrimination within the European Union.
Her areas of research are equality and discrimination law, human rights and European law and she has published widely on topics within this area including racial discrimination, religious discrimination and freedom of religion, multiple discrimination and the right to equality. She has been involved in two projects for the British Equality and Human Rights Commission, a project on the right to freedom of religion or belief and its intersection with other rights for ILGA-Europe and two major European research projects on multiple discrimination. She has written a research study for the EU Parliament Research Service on the implementation of Directive 2000/78/EC with regard to the principle of non-discrimination on the basis of religion or belief. Her recent research includes freedom of expression and religious hate speech.
Erica teaches equality and discrimination law at undergraduate level and Uk and EU anti-discrimination law at post-graduate level. She has supervised to completion three PhD students studying disability discrimination, vulnerable domestic workers and age discrimination and is currently supervising PhD students studying different aspects of disability and sexual orientation discrimination, vulnerable workers and freedom of speech and defamation. She welcomes applications from research students in any of the areas of her research.
PhD European Law (Queen Mary, University of London - 2007); LLM International Law (University of Hertfordshire - 1999); MA Sociology and Law (Brunel University - 1985); Masters in Law (Tilburg University, Holland - 1979); Post-graduate Certificate of Higher Education (Middlesex, 2009)
Journal Articles (refereed):
Chapters in book:
Conference Papers (refereed):
Other publications (refereed):
Dutch (mother tongue) and English, working knowledge of German and French
Research areas: Doctoral students welcome in the following areas:
Howard, Erica (2017) Freedom of expression, blasphemy and religious hatred: a view from the UK. In: Blasphemy and Freedom of Expression. Temperman, Jeroen and Koltay, Andras , eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 9781108416917 (Accepted/In press)
Howard, Erica (2017) Islamic headscarves and the CJEU: Achbita and Bougnaoui. Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law . ISSN 1023-263X (Accepted/In press)
Howard, Erica (2017) Freedom of Expression and Religious Hate Speech in Europe. Routledge Research in Human Rights Law . Routledge, UK.
Howard, Erica (2016) Gratuitously offensive speech and the political debate. European Human Rights Law Review, 6 . pp. 636-644. ISSN 1361-1526
Howard, Erica (2016) Indirect discrimination, reasonable accomodation and religion. In: Equal is not enough. Discrimination law in theory and practice . Intersentia, Cambridge/Antwerp/Portland, pp. 73-91. ISBN 9781780684062
Author of research study for the EU Parliament Research Service on the Implementation of Directive 2000/78/EC with regard to the principle of non-discrimination on the basis of religion or belief
Consultant for two EHRC projects, main contractors NatCen: Call for evidence (with Alice Donald) and drafting guidance documents (with Alice Donald and David Keane)
Argument from article: Reasonable Accommodation of Religion and other Discrimination Grounds in EU law European Law Review 38, 3, 360-375 (2013), used by the UK Supreme Court in Bull and Bull v Hall and Preddy  UKSC 73, para 45). This argument was then referred to in the Northern Ireland 'gay cake' case (Lee v Ashers Baking Co Ltd, County Court Northern Ireland, 19 May 2015).
Presentation of evidence on the current legislation concerning religion or belief to the Commission on Religion and Belief in Public Life (May 2015).
Member of the editorial board of: