Erica Howard is a Reader in law. She joined Middlesex in 2007 and previously briefly taught European Union Law at the University of Hertfordshire. She holds a doctorate in law from the University of London, on the subject of race and racial discrimination within the European Union.

Her areas of research are equality and discrimination law, human rights and European law and she has published widely on topics within this area including racial discrimination, religious discrimination and freedom of religion, multiple discrimination and the right to equality. She has been involved in two major European Research projectson multiple discrimination: an FP-7 funded project of the European Commission called GendeRace, and a project, on multiple discrimination in access to health care, funded by the European Fundamental Rights Agency.

Erica teaches equality and discrimination law and tort law at undergraduate level and discrimination and the law at post-graduate level. She has supervised a PhD student studying disability discrimination and is currently supervising PhD students studying different aspects of age discrimination and vulnerable workers. She welcomes applications from research students in any of the areas of her research.

PhD European Law, LLM International Law, MA Sociology and Law, Masters in Law, PGCertHE

PhD European Law (Queen Mary, University of London - 2007) LLM International Law (University of Hertfordshire - 1999) MA Sociology and Law (Brunel University - 1985) Masters in Law (Tilburg University, Holland - 1979)

Current Responsibilities:

  • Module Leader BA Law: Equality and the Law
  • Module Leader LLM: Discrimination and the Law



  • Law and the Wearing of Religious Symbols: European Bans on the Wearing of Religious Symbols in Education (London, Routledge, 2012).
  • The EU Race Directive: Developing the Protection against Racial Discrimination within the EU (London: Routledge 2010).

Journal Articles (refereed):

  • Reasonable Accommodation of Religion and other Discrimination Grounds in EU law European Law Review 38, 3, 360-375
  • Banning Islamic Veils – Is Gender Equality a Valid Argument? 12, 3, International Journal of Discrimination and the Law 147-165 (2012).
  • Equality Bodies and Individual Victims: an Example of Good Practice from the Netherlands, E-Journal of International and Comparative Labour Studies 1 (1-2, June 2012).
  • EU Equality Law: Three Recent Developments 17, 6, European Law Journal 785-803 (2011).
  • ECJ Advances Equality in Europe by giving Horizontal Direct Effect to Directives 17, 4, European Public Law 729-743 (2011).
  • An Opportunity Missed? Comment on Römer 36 European Law Review 586-596 (2011). Reproduced in: 12, European Current Law xi-xx (2011).
  • Bans on the Wearing of Religious Symbols in British Schools: a Violation of the Right to Non-discrimination? 6, 2, Journal of Religion and Human Rights 127-149 (2011).
  • School Bans on the Wearing of Religious Symbols: Examining the Implications of Recent Case Law from the UK 4, 1, Journal of Religion and Human Rights 7-24 (2009).
  • Equality - a Fundamental Right in the EU? 10, 1, International Journal of Discrimination and the Law 19-38 (2009).
  • Race and Racism: Why does European Law have Difficulties with Definitions? 24,1, International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, 5-30 (2008).
  • The European Year of Equal Opportunities for All - 2007: Is the EU Moving away from a formal Idea of Equality? 14, 2, European Law Journal 168-185 (2008).
  • The EU Race Directive: Time for Change? 8, 4, International Journal of Discrimination and the Law 237-261 (2007).
  • The Case for a Considered Hierarchy of Discrimination Grounds in EU Law 13, 4, Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law 445-470 (2006).
  • The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights 4, European Human Rights Law Review 445-55 (2006).
  • Anti Race Discrimination Measures in Europe: An Attack on Two Fronts 11, 4, European Law Journal 468-86 (2005).
  • The EU Race Directive: Its Symbolic Value - Its Only Value? 6, 2, International Journal of Discrimination and the Law 141-63 (2004).

Chapter in book:

  • Islamic Veil Bans: the Gender Equality Justification and Empirical Evidence in: E. Brems, ed., The Face Veil in Europe Inside and Out (forthcoming autumn 2013)
  • Carles, I., Howard, E. and Kofman, E. ‘Gendered Experiences of Racial Discrimination – Comparative Socio-legal Research’ in: D. Schiek and A. Lawson (eds.) EU Non-Discrimination Law and Intersectionality (Farnham, Ashgate, 2011).

Conference Papers (refereed):

  • Multiple Discrimination in Law. Paper Presented at the ‘Think Equal, Symposium on Multiple Discrimination’, 1 November 2011, National Commission for the Promotion of Equality (NCPE), Malta. Paper available at:

Other publiactions (refereed):

  • The European Court of Human Rights gets it Right: A Comment on Eweida and others v the United Kingdom, European journal of international Law Blog:
  • Equality and Discrimination Law
  • European Union Discrimination Law
  • Human Rights
  • Race Discrimination
  • Religious Discrimination
  • Gender Discrimination
  • Equality and Discrimination Law
  • Race Discrimination
  • Religious discrimination
  • Multiple Discrimination
  • European Law
  • Human Rights
  • Employment Law

Research Supervision

  • Discrimination and equality, national and international
  • European Equality law