Peer reviewed research papers

  • Butler SA, Luttoo J, Freire MO, Abban TK, Borrelli PT, Iles RK. (2013) Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) in the Secretome of Cultured Embryos: Hyperglycosylated hCG and hCG-Free Beta Subunit Are Potential Markers for Infertility Management and Treatment. Reproductive Science.Feb 25.
  • Cole LA & Butler SA.(2012) HyperglycosylatedhCG, hCGβ and HyperglycosylatedhCGβ: interchangeable cancer promoters.Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012 Feb 26;349(2):232-8.
  • Morse MA, Chapman R, Powderly J, Blackwell K, Keler T, Green J, Riggs R, He LZ, Ramakrishna V, Vitale L, Zhao B, Butler SA, Hobeika A, Osada T, Davis T, Clay T, Lyerly HK. (2011) Phase I Study Utilizing a Novel Antigen-Presenting Cell-Targeted Vaccine with Toll-like Receptor Stimulation to Induce Immunity to Self-antigens in Cancer Patients.Clinical Cancer Research.Jul 15;17(14):4844-53
  • Iles RK & Butler SA.(2010) Gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors--evolutional genetics, signalling mechanisms, extra gonadal function and roles in oncogenesis. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. Nov 25;329(1-2):1-2.
  • Iles RK. Delves PJ &Butler SA.(2010) Does hCG and hCGβ play a role in cancer cell biology?Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology.Nov 25;329(1-2):62-70.
  • Cole LA, Butler SA. Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin free beta-subunit: tumor markers and tumor promoters.J Reprod Med. 2008 Jul;53(7):499-512.
  • Cole LA, Khanlian SA, Riley JM, Butler SA. Hyperglycosylated hCG in gestational implantation and in choriocarcinoma and testicular germ cell malignancy tumorigenesis. J Reprod Med. 2006 Nov;51(11):919-29.
  • Cole LA, Dai D, Butler SA, Leslie KK, Kohorn EI. Gestational trophoblastic diseases: 1. Pathophysiology of hyperglycosylated hCG. Gynecol Oncol. 2006 Aug;102(2):145-50.
  • Cole LA, Butler SA, Khanlian SA, Giddings A, Muller CY, Seckl MJ, Kohorn EI. Gestational trophoblastic diseases: 2. Hyperglycosylated hCG as a reliable marker of active neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol. 2006 Aug;102(2):151-9.
  • Cole LA, Khanlian SA, Giddings A, Butler SA, Muller CY, Hammond C, Kohorn E. Gestational trophoblastic diseases: 4. Presentation with persistent low positive human chorionic gonadotropin test results. Gynecol Oncol. 2006 Aug;102(2):165-72.
  • Wen X, Tozer AJ, Butler SA, Bell CM, Docherty SM, Iles RK. Follicular fluid levels of inhibin A, inhibin B and activin A levels reflect changes in follicle size but are not independent markers of oocyte ability to fertilize. Fertility and Sterility (2006) 85:1723-1729.
  • Butler SA, Iles RK. The free monomeric beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG beta) and the recently identified homodimeric beta-beta subunit (hCG beta beta) both have autocrine growth effects. Tumour Biol. 2004 Jan-Apr;25(1-2):18-23.
  • Borrelli AL, Butler SA, Borrelli PT, Zurzolo VS, Felicetti M, Torella M. The utility of fetal urine biochemistry in the management of lower urinary tract obstructions. A report of 3 cases. Minerva Urol Nefrol. 2004 Dec;56(4):371-6.
  • Sutton JM, Khanlian SA, Cole LA, Butler SA. HCG urinary metabolites in breast milk. Horm Metab Res. 2004 Feb;36(2):75-7.
  • Butler SA. hCG--mass units, molar conversions, and the standardization of biologic units. Fertil Steril. 2003 Dec;80(6):1533; author reply 1533-4.
  • Butler SA, Staite EM, Iles RK. Reduction of bladder cancer cell growth in response to hCGbeta CTP37 vaccinated mouse serum. Oncol Res. 2003;14(2):93-100.
  • Borrelli PT, Butler SA, Docherty SM, Staite EM, Borrelli AL, Iles RK. Human chorionic gonadotropin isoforms in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. Clin Chem. 2003 Dec;49(12):2045-9.
  • Butler SA, Iles RK. Ectopic human chorionic gonadotropin beta secretion by epithelial tumors and human chorionic gonadotropin beta-induced apoptosis in Kaposi's sarcoma: is there a connection? Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Oct 15;9(13):4666-73. Review.
  • Butler SA, Cole LA. Falsely elevated human chorionic gonadotropin leading to unnecessary therapy. Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Mar;99(3):516-7.
  • Cole LA, Butler S. Detection of hCG in trophoblastic disease. The USA hCG reference service experience. J Reprod Med. 2002 Jun;47(6):433-44.
  • Butler SA, Khanlian SA, Cole LA. Detection of early pregnancy forms of human chorionic gonadotropin by home pregnancy test devices. Clin Chem. 2001 Dec;47(12):2131-6
  • Butler SA, Cole LA. Use of heterophilic antibody blocking agent (HBT) in reducing false-positive hCG results. Clin Chem. 2001;47(7):1332-3
  • Cole LA, Shahabi S, Butler SA, Mitchell H, Newlands ES, Behrman HR, Verrill HL. Utility of commonly used commercial human chorionic gonadotropin immunoassays in the diagnosis and management of trophoblastic diseases. Clin Chem. 2001 Feb;47(2):308-15.
  • Weinans MJ, Butler SA, Mantingh A, Cole LA. Urinary hyperglycosylated hCG in first trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities. Prenat Diagn. 2000 Dec;20(12):976-8.
  • Butler SA, Ikram MS, Mathieu S, Iles RK. The increase in bladder carcinoma cell population induced by the free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin is a result of an anti-apoptosis effect and not cell proliferation. Br J Cancer. 2000 May;82(9):1553-6.
  • Iles RK, Butler SA, Jacoby E. Dimerization of urinary beta-core/hCFbetacf: a cause of poor beta-core assay performance in Down syndrome screening studies. Prenat Diagn. 1999 Aug;19(8):790-2.
  • Butler SA, Laidler P, Porter JR, Kicman AT, Chard T, Cowan DA, Iles RK. The beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin exists as a homodimer. J Mol Endocrinol. 1999 Apr;22(2):185-92.
  • Butler SA, Cole LA, Chard T, Iles RK. Dissociation of human chorionic gonadotropin into its free subunits is dependent on naturally occurring molecular structural variation, sample matrix and storage conditions. Ann Clin Biochem. 1998 Nov;35 ( Pt 6):754-60.
  • Iles RK, Butler SA. Human urothelial carcinomas--a typical disease of the aged: the clinical utility of human chorionic gonadotrophin in patient management and future therapy. Exp Gerontol. 1998 Aug;33(5):379-91. Review.

Book Editor

  • Cole LA and Butler SA (2010)Human Chorionic Gonadotropin - hCG. 1st edition, Elsevier. ISBN No:0123849071

Book Chapters

  • Iles RK and Butler SA (2012)Clinical Cell Biology and Genetics, in Biomedical Sciences, Essential Laboratory Medicine, 1st Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, pp89-138.
  • Iles RK and Butler SA (2012) Clinical Chemistry, in Biomedical Sciences, Essential Laboratory Medicine, 1st Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, pp205-259.
  • Butler SA(2010) Molecular Genetics of hCG. InHuman Chorionic Gonadotropin - hCG. 1st Ed, Elsevier.ISBN No: 0123849071. pp37-4I
  • Cole LA and Butler SA(2010) Structure, Synthesis, Secretion and Function of hCG. In Human Chorionic Gonadotropin - hCG. 1st Ed, Elsevier.ISBN No: 0123849071.pp49-67
  • Cole LA and Butler SA (2010) The hCG Receptor. In Human Chorionic Gonadotropin - hCG. 1st Ed, Elsevier.ISBN No: 0123849071. pp139-145.
  • Butler SA and Iles RK (2010) Biological function of the free beta subunit: Expression and treatment target in cancer. In Human Chorionic Gonadotropin - hCG. 1st Ed, Elsevier. ISBN No: 0123849071. pp 153-161.
  • Bax CMR. Davies S. Chatzaki E. Butler SA. Iles RK. (2003) Role of Glycoprotein Hormones in Endometrial Cancer. In: Cell and Molecular Biology of Endometrial Carcinoma, Springer-Verlag.pp 225-236.

Scientific and Teaching & Learning Commentaries and Articles

  • Butler SA. (2006) Review of “Mind the Gap: are students prepared for higher education?” by Houston Lowe & Anthony Cook. Investigations – in house journal for teaching and learning in higher education, London Metropolitan University Press.
  • Cole LA. & Butler SA.(2001) False positive or phantom hCG results: A serious problem. Clinical Laboratories International. 25 (3): 9-11
  • Cole LA. Khanlian SA. & Butler SA. (2001) False positive hCGimmunoreactivity. Lab Medica International. 18 (2): 9-10.

External lectures as an Invited Speaker

  • 8th July 2008. Perspectives on the monitoring and clinical utility of hCG measurement in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. International Conference on Gonadotropins and Receptor (ICGRII), Theobald Park, Hertfordshire, UK
  • 16th April 2005. Immunodepletion of hCG beta reduces cancer cell growth in vitro: a potential for anti-hCGß vaccines as an adjuvant therapy for epithelial cancers. International Meeting on Gonadotropins and Receptors. University of Atlanta, Athens, Georgia, USA
  • 15th June 2001. Suitability of home test devices for detecting early pregnancy forms of hCG. 3rd Annual Women's Health Research Syposium. New Mexico H
  • Cellular metabolism and biochemistry
  • Molecular biology and applied techniques
  • Metabolic Biochemistry & Endocrinology
  • Tumour marker biochemistry
  • Reproductive and Developmental Biochemistry
  • Protein & Proteomic Biochemistry
  • Practical Dissertation and Research Project Supervision

Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) structure/function Cancer Biomarkers and Reproductive Biochemistry

  • Ectopic hCG and hCGbeta expression by cancer
  • hCG in diagnosis and monitoring pregnancy
  • Normal and abnormal pregnancy diagnosis (trophoblast disease/ectopic pregnancy/down syndrome)
  • Anti- hCGβ cancer vaccines / immunodepletion of hCG
  • MALDI - TOF glyco-proteomics of hCG
  • Gestational Aspartame Metabolism