Prof Terence Jackson
Terence Jackson is Professor of Cross Cultural Management at Middlesex University Business School, London. He also holds honorary visiting research professorships at Rhodes University, Department of Management, South Africa; at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Department of Development Studies in South Africa; and at Open University Business School, UK. He is Editor-in-Chief of International Journal of Cross Cultural Management (London: Sage) His main interest is in sub-Saharan Africa. He undertook a study of management and change in 15 sub-Saharan countries funded by the Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA) leading to the publication in 2004 of a leading textbook, Management and Change in Africa: A Cross-cultural Perspective (London: Routledge). His main current interests are in the cross-cultural management of development projects and management of NGOs in Africa; China in Africa and the implications at organizational and community levels; and indigenous management and the informal economy in Africa.
His main teaching interest is in the supervision and training of PhD students, and he welcomes strong applicants in the area of International and cross-cultural Management, and in relevant areas related to sub-Saharan Africa and other developing regions. He also is involved in supervising and teaching at masters level, and in the development of new international postgraduate courses.
I hold a bachelors degree in Social Anthropology with a minor in Political Science (BScEcon, University of Wales, Swansea), a masters in Education (MA, University of Keele, UK), and a PhD in Organizational Psychology (Henley Management College/Brunel University, UK). I also hold qualified teaching status (PGCE, University of Keele, UK).
My research is concerned with developing cross-cultural management theory, in relation to studying management and organization in sub-Saharan Africa.
Africa has been largely ignored by extant cross-cultural management scholarship. Not only is Africa becoming more important on the world stage, its lack of integration into cross-cultural management studies is missing an opportunity to further develop this sub-discipline. Geopolitical and local powers dynamics are very prominent in African countries. You do not even have to look below the surface. Highly complex societies, conflictual histories, all add up to an opportunity to examine and integrate these dynamics into theory building. Mostly cross-cultural management scholarship ignores power dynamics and different and multiple levels of cross-cultural interaction. Cross-cultural management scholars predominantly miss the political nature of doing social and behavioural science. Yet in Africa, you have to recognize these aspects.
Most of what I do today is informed by my initial 15-country study of sub-Saharan Africa published in 2004 in my book Management and Change in Africa: A Cross-cultural Perspective (London: Sage)
Currently I am working on three projects:
Chinese Organizations in Sub-Saharan Africa: New Dynamics, New Synergies
Research partners: Middlesex University Business School: Terence Jackson, Professor of Cross-Cultural Management; Rhodes University, South Africa: Professor Lynnette Louw, Deputy Dean, Faculty of Commerce; Nanjing University, China: Professor Shuming Zhao, Dean of the Business School.
China's presence in Africa is changing geopolitical dynamics impacting at organizational and community levels. Little extant literature focuses on these levels. These dynamics also influence the ways scholars view Chinese activity, often negatively so. Critical theories in international organizational and management studies that draw on Postcolonial Theory focus on North-South dynamics. This may now be inappropriate to critically understanding a new South-South dynamic. The project sets out to collaboratively develop cross-cultural theory and methodology to study these dynamics at organizational level, to investigate the nature of Chinese organizational activity and its implications for Africa’s economic, social and community development
The presence of China in sub-Saharan Africa is significant for the economies of China and the majority of countries south of the Saharan where Chinese organizations now operate. This presence is also of major concern to Western countries on issues such as China’s unrestricted lending that has '..undermined years of painstaking efforts to arrange conditional debt relief', and where purported Chinese disregard for human rights has become an issue . Extant literature appears confined to macro-issues such as level of FDI and the intent of China towards Africa. Yet China’s activities directly impact on the lives and wellbeing of African employees and communities, and ultimately on the prosperity and development of sub-Saharan Africa. This proposed collaboration seeks to address the lack of theory, methodology and empirical research at individual, organizational and community levels. This is urgent in the light of the accumulation of often negative anecdotal information in areas such as employment and community relations on which assumptions (UK and Western) policy may be being made. With currently little systematic empirical information based on solidly constructed theory and methodology, there is a need to understand from different perspectives through an international collaboration, the nature of interaction at organizational level (with employees, with local community), for example, how Chinese managers manage African staff, and how these interactions and their effects are perceived.
Our aims are to determine, through cross-cultural collaborative research focused on South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Nigeria, Cameroon, Kenya and Tanzania, the nature of Chinese activities and organization of a sample of major corporations in key sectors and their impact on employment and community relations, through interviews with policy-makers/executives in China, Africa and in UK (to compare perceptions and policy towards and relations with Chinese activity); surveys in the African countries, with managers, staff and community leaders, and in depth case studies in order to advise stakeholders of the cross-cultural appropriateness, as well as effectiveness, of policies and practices, to enable dialogue among stakeholders and thus contribute to knowledge and scholarly research, policy and practice.
Development projects and management of NGOs in Africa
This ongoing project has been generously supported by a grant from the former UK Department for Education's England-Africa Partnership (EAP) programme administered by the British Council, and by a British Academy small grant.
International Aid is a 100 billion dollar industry with complex cross-national and cross-cultural linkages, and holds the lives of millions of Africans in its hands. Yet it has largely been ignored by management researchers. Extant cross-cultural theories such as Hofstede’s (1980/2003), seem inadequate in dealing with the complexities of interactions, and ignores power relations such as within the global governance structure of, for example, the international, national and local efforts to fight HIV/AIDS and TB. It is therefore difficult, by using existing theory, to assess why there might be blocks within this governance structure that prevent the input of resources being realized effectively and appropriately in outcomes. Two questions arise: (1) How can robust cross-cultural management theory be developed that is able to address management issues within complex international governance structures that involve multiple layers of cross-cultural interaction involving relationships of power? and, (2) How can this theory be used to address policy and practice issues involving north-south relations and the transfer of knowledge and technologies, weak feedback loops, culturally insensitive interactions; complex (and sensitive to research) issues of inter-ethnic interactions in a country such as South Africa.
The aims have been to:
- Constructs innovative and practical cross-cultural theory: building on Flyvbjerg's (2001) reinterpretation of Aristotle’s phronesis, where social science should be driven by value-rationality, and context specific insight, rather than universal predictive science, and also builds on Postcolonial Theory (where the ‘developing’ world is represented in the eyes of the ‘developed’ world) particularly as applied in Development Studies, to examine power relations within cultural theory of geopolitical interaction, with attention to Dependency Theory, which focuses on institutional/economic issues (both theories mostly unexplored in Management Studies); and
- Investigates to what extent cross-cultural management issues play a part in the blocks in the global delivery of projects/programmes in HIV/AIDS & TB in South Africa, and how cross-cultural theory can be developed from this context.
- This together with: develops a methodology that is able to analyse the constructing of cultural identities within ‘interfaces’ at different levels of the governance structure, their implications for perceptions of cultural interactions, and the blocks to effective and appropriate management right through to local level, and feedback loops up to international level. And,
- Demonstrates implications for policy makers and practitioners.
Informal Economy in Africa and Indigenous Management
The informal economy has grown in importance within sub-Saharan Africa, yet there are debates about its role within national economies that appear not to take cognizance of the interests and the weak power base of those working within the informal economy. The current research argues that a cross-cultural perspective should be taken in understanding the geopolitical context of informal organizations, the power relationships involved and how the contributions and future of skills development, employment and organization within the informal and wider economies can be better understood and researched. It initially alludes to the informal sector being closer to local communities, and more appropriate to developments in Africa, but draws on Postcolonial Theory to better understand the nature and role of such organization within an interface of structural and phenomenological influences that question the nature of the 'indigenous' as an artefact. Some of the parameters of research in this area are drawn within this work while recognizing that further development is needed in both theory and methods. The research thus attempts to lay the foundations for a cross-cultural conceptual framework leading to a methodology that can inform both practice and policy in this neglected but important area.
As well as my research training I also hold an MA in Education and a Postgraduate Certificate in Education: a professional teaching qualification. I am particularly interested in international management education, and the associated issues of transferring knowledge across different cultures. I am currently developing a major research project in this area jointly with colleagues at Middlesex Univesity and Open University Business School, UK, drawing on institutional strengths, respectively, work-based learning and distance/open learning.
My main contributions to management education have been in the design and teaching of masters courses, while developing textbooks in relevant areas over the last 20 years, at EAP-ESCP European School of Management (now ESCP Europe) within a three-country, three-year, three-language postgraduate programme, and more recently at Middlesex University Business School, London. I have also taught or presented seminars at a number of universities around the world as a visiting academic, including:
- Open University Business, School, UK
- Rhodes University, South Africa, Department of Management
- Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa, Department of Development Studies and Business School
- Brunel University Business School, UK
- Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, The Netherland
- University of Stellenbosch, School of Public Management and Graduate School of Business, South Africa
- University of Cincinnati, Centre for Global Business, USA
- Oxford Brookes University Business School, UK
- Kenya Institute of Management, Nairobi
- Zimbabwe Institute of Management and University of Zimbabwe, Graduate School of Management
- University of Cape Town, Graduate School of Business, South Africa
- University of the Western Cape, School of Government, Cape Town
- Technical University of Brno, Faculty of Management and Economics, Zlin, Czech Republic
- Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
- University of Hull, Institute of Pacific Asia Studies, UK
- University of Reading, The Graduate School of European and International Studies, Centre for Euro-Asian Studies, UK
- Joint Management Development Programme, Johannesburg and Rustenburg, South Africa;
- The Civil Service College, UK
- Chartered Institute of Transport/Salford University, UK
- Groupe ESC (Ecole Superieure de Commerce) Rennes, France
- Escuela Superior de Gestion Comercial y Marketing (ESIC), Valencia and Madrid, Spain
I hold the view that cross-cultural management should not be taught as a separate subject but should be integrated into courses such as organizational behaviour, management and human resource management. It is difficult to see how, for example, organizational behaviour in a globalized world can be taught without integrating international and cross-cultural management ideas and principles right from the start. Yet it often happens that a cross-cultural management course is created almost as an afterthought, as an add on after students have learned the 'basic principles' of OB, HRM or management. How is that possible?
My taught modules have included:
- Organizational Behaviour in International Management: including developing and publishing the textbook - Jackson, T. Organisational Behaviour in International Management, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. 1993, and sourcebook - Jackson, T. Cross-cultural Management (ed.) Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1995
- International Human Resource Management: including developing and publishing the textbook - Jackson, T. International HRM: A Cross-cultural Approach, London: Sage, 2002, currently being revised for a second edition
- International Management Ethics: and developing and publishing the textbook - Jackson, T. International Management Ethics: A Critical, Cross-cultural Perspective, Cambridge University Press, 2011
I have also contributed to undergraduate courses in Cross-cultural Management (perhaps somewhat reluctantly given my comments above) and masters courses in Research Methods, as well as contributing to seminars and programmes on Management in Africa, on the basis of my textbook - Jackson, T. Management and Change in Africa: A Cross-cultural Perspective, London: Routledge, 2004.
My main teaching currently includes the supervision and research education of PhD, masters dissertation students and contribution to postgraduate teaching in areas including international HRM, Ethics, Organizational Behaviour and Cross-cultural Management.
I am also currently developing an international collaborative MA in Management in International Development.
I hold a bachelors degree in Social Anthropology (University of Wales, Swansea), a masters in Education (University of Keele, UK), and a PhD in Organizational Psychology (Henley Management College/Brunel University, UK). I am Professor of Cross-Cultural Management at Middlesex University Business School, London, and Visiting Professor in the Department of Development Studies at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. I also hold honorary visiting professorships at Rhodes University, South Africa, and at the Open University Business School, UK.
I am editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Cross Cultural Management (London: Sage Publications) and have published numerous articles in the area of cross-cultural and international management of people and change: including comparative management ethics, management learning and in management in developing countries in such journals as Human Resource Management (USA), Human Relations, Journal of Management Studies, Journal of World Business, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Journal of Business Ethics, and Organization. I have published eight books including International Management Ethics: A Critical, Cross-cultural Perspective (Cambridge University Press, 2011), Management and Change in Africa: A Cross-Cultural Perspective (London: Routledge, 2004) and International HRM: A Cross-cultural Approach (London: Sage, 2002) which I am currently revising for a second edition.
Between 2000-2003 I directed a research project over 15 African countries on the management of people and change funded by the Danish Foreign Ministry and Paris Chamber of Commerce (circa. £100,000). In 2003-4 I undertook research in South Africa on local and international NGOs, funded through the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. I obtained funding from the UK Department of Education and Skills in 2007-8 to undertake in partnership with universities in South Africa and Botswana a research project on cross-cultural health service delivery in the area of HIV/AIDS (circa. £85,000) and in 2009-10 gained an award from the British Academy to further develop the methodology and conceptual underpinning of this research in South Africa. I have been invited to present a number of keynote addresses at conferences (including AoM Africa caucus 2010 and 2011; South Africa national Development Studies conference 2010; Leadership and Management Studies in sub-Saharan Africa conference, University of Cape Town, Nov 2010) and invited university seminars on Cross-cultural Management in Africa, more recently on the organizational implications of China in Africa, and on the informal economy in Africa and its development implication (including Rotterdam School of Management, 2011). I am currently working with partners across Africa, as well as in China to develop projects in these areas.
Prior to joining Middlesex University I was at ESCP-EAP European School of Management (Paris-London-Berlin-Madrid-Turin) based at their UK campus. Prior to this I was Manager, Group Training Consultancy, Personnel Division, National Westminster Bank Group (NatWest). I have also worked in the UK Civil Service and in further education (I am a qualified teacher with post-graduate training). I have consulted to a number of international organizations including Oxfam, 3Com Europe, ASEA Brown Boveri, Thomson-CSF, and to International NGO Training and Research Centre (INTRAC) in International NGO people capacity building, and have a particular interest in the transfer of management training and education across cultures.
- Jackson, T. (In Press) Employment in Chinese MNEs: Appraising the Dragon’s Gift to sub-Saharan Africa, Human Resource Management. (SSCI impact factor: 1.516)
- Jackson, T., Louw, L. & Zhao, S. (In Press) China in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for HRM Policy and Practice at Organizational Level, International Journal of Human Resource Management. (SSCI impact factor: 1.043)
- Jackson, T. (In Press) Reconstructing the Indigenous in African Management Research: Implications for International Management Studies in a Globalized World, Management International Review (SSCI impact factor: 0.754)
- Claeyé, F. and Jackson, T. (2012) The Iron Cage Re-revisited: Institutional Isomorphism in Non-profit Organisations in South Africa, Journal of International Development, 24(5), 602-22 (SSCI impact factor 0.878)
- Jackson, T. (2012) Cross-cultural management and the informal economy in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for organization, employment and skills development, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(14), July, 2012, 2901-2916, (published online 30/03/12: DOI:10.1080/09585192.2012.671510) (SSCI impact factor: 1.043)
- Jackson, T. (2012) Postcolonialism and Organizational Knowledge in the Wake of China’s Presence in Africa: Interrogating South-South relations, Organization. 19(2): 181-204. (SSCI impact factor: 1.671)
- Jackson, T. (2011) From Cultural Values to Cross-cultural Interfaces: Hofstede Goes to Africa, Journal of Organization Change Management, 24(4): 532-58. (SSCI impact factor: 0.744) Claeyé, F., & Jackson, T. (2011) Project delivery in HIV/AIDS and TB in Southern Africa: The cross-cultural management imperative. Journal of Health Organization and Management. 25(4): 469-86
- Jackson, T. (2011) Conceptualizing the cross-cultural gaps in managing international aid: HIV/AIDS and TB project delivery in Southern Africa, International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 26(2) 191–212. (SSCI impact factor 0.640)
- Jackson, T. (2009) A Critical Cross-cultural Perspective for Developing Nonprofit International Management Capacity, Non-Profit Management and Leadership, 19(4): 443-66 (SSCI impact factor: 0.580)
- Jackson, T., Amaeshi, K. & Yavuz, S. (2008) Untangling African Indigenous Management: Multiple influences on the success of SMEs in Kenya Journal of World Business, 43(3), 400-16. (SSCI impact factor: 2.383)
- Jackson, T. International Management Ethics: A Critical, Cross-cultural Perspective, Cambridge University Press, 2011
- Jackson, T. Management and Change in Africa: A Cross-cultural Perspective, London: Routledge, 2004
- Jackson, T. International HRM: A Cross-cultural Approach, London: Sage, 2002. Chinese translation 2004; Second edition in preparation.
See also: www. terencejackson.net