This study identified firms that had received support for innovation through twenty-five government programmes since 2004. It examined the effect of these programmes on these firms’ performance, looking at their long-term sales turnover growth, employment growth, innovation and survival. The most advanced counterfactual impact evaluation methods were deployed using government administrative datasets. Outcomes were compared against matching control groups so as to isolate the programmes’ impact. Middlesex University’s contribution to the study was an examination of knowledge-spillover effects and was led by Dr James Derbyshire.