Erica Howard is Professor of law. She joined Middlesex in 2007 and previously briefly taught European Union Law at the University of Hertfordshire. She holds a doctorate in law from the University of London on the subject of race and racial discrimination within the European Union.
Erica's areas of research are equality and discrimination law, human rights and European law. She has published widely on topics within this area including racial discrimination, religious discrimination and freedom of religion, multiple discrimination and the right to equality. She has been involved in two projects for the British Equality and Human Rights Commission, a project on the right to freedom of religion or belief and its intersection with other rights for ILGA-Europe and two major European research projects on multiple discrimination; and a EU funded project on homo and transphobia in small and medium cities in Europe.
Erica has written a research study for the EU Parliament Research Service on the implementation of Directive 2000/78/EC with regard to the principle of non-discrimination on the basis of religion or belief. She has also written a report commissioned by the European Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non-discrimination for the European Commission, on 'Religious Clothing and Symbols in Employment'. Her recent research includes freedom of expression and religious hate speech.
Erica teaches equality and discrimination law at undergraduate level and Uk and EU anti-discrimination law at post-graduate level. She has supervised to completion four PhD students studying disability discrimination, vulnerable domestic workers, age discrimination and the refugee pay gap and is currently supervising PhD students studying pregnancy and maternity discrimination, the gender pay gap in education, disability and sexual orientation discrimination and, freedom of speech and defamation. She welcomes applications from research students in any of the areas of her research.
PhD European Law (Queen Mary, University of London - 2007); LLM International Law (University of Hertfordshire - 1999); MA Sociology and Law (Brunel University - 1985); Masters in Law (Tilburg University, Holland - 1979); Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (2018). Post-graduate Certificate of Higher Education (Middlesex, 2009).
Journal Articles (refereed):
Chapters in book:
Conference Papers (refereed):
Other publications (refereed):
Dutch (mother tongue) and English, working knowledge of German and French
Research areas: Doctoral students welcome in the following areas:
Howard, Erica (2018) Andras Koltay The Troubled Relationship Between Religions and the State Freedom of Expression and Freedom of Religion (Whitelocke Publications, 2017) [ Book Review]. Human Rights Law Review . ISSN 1461-7781 (Accepted/In press)
Howard, Erica (2018) Moving hate speech to the civil courts. Anti-Discrimination Law Review . ISSN 2543-571X (Accepted/In press)
Howard, Erica (2018) EU anti-discrimination law: has the CJEU stopped moving forward? International Journal of Discrimination and the Law, 18 (2-3). pp. 60-81. ISSN 1358-2291
Howard, Erica (2018) Affirmative action in the UK and South Africa. In: The existence and efficacy of affirmative action measures in UK, South Africa, India, China, Latin America and Brazil. Baez, Narciso L. X. and Dominguez-Redondo, Elvira , eds. Unoesc, Jaocaba, Brazil, pp. 185-215. ISBN 9788584221707
Howard, Erica (2019) Protection des personnes LGBT+ en Europe : le cadre juridique national et de l’EU [LGBT+ Protection In Europe: the EU and National Legal Framework]. Droit et Cultures, 77 . ISSN 0247-9788 (Accepted/In press)
Author of report commissioned by the European Network of Legal Experts in Gender Equality and Non-discrimination for the European Commission, on 'Religious Clothing and Symbols in Employment'.
Author of research study for the EU Parliament Research Service on the Implementation of Directive 2000/78/EC with regard to the principle of non-discrimination on the basis of religion or belief
Consultant for two EHRC projects, main contractors NatCen: Call for evidence (with Alice Donald) and drafting guidance documents (with Alice Donald and David Keane)
Argument from article: Reasonable Accommodation of Religion and other Discrimination Grounds in EU law European Law Review 38, 3, 360-375 (2013), used by the UK Supreme Court in Bull and Bull v Hall and Preddy  UKSC 73, para 45). This argument was then referred to in the Northern Ireland 'gay cake' case (Lee v Ashers Baking Co Ltd, County Court Northern Ireland, 19 May 2015).
Presentation of evidence on the current legislation concerning religion or belief to the Commission on Religion and Belief in Public Life (May 2015).
Member of the editorial board of: